Retinoic Acid Receptor Beta (RARβ; NR1B2)

(From RefSeq)

This gene encodes retinoic acid receptor beta, a member of the thyroid-steroid hormone receptor superfamily of nuclear transcriptional regulators. This receptor localizes to the cytoplasm and to subnuclear compartments. It binds retinoic acid, the biologically active form of vitamin A which mediates cellular signalling in embryonic morphogenesis, cell growth and differentiation. It is thought that this protein limits growth of many cell types by regulating gene expression. The gene was first identified in a hepatocellular carcinoma where it flanks a hepatitis B virus integration site. The gene expresses at least two transcript variants; one additional transcript has been described, but its full length nature has not been determined.

NRR Pathway

RAR gene expression

Retinoic Acid Receptor Beta Struture


(From Structure)


(From Aceview)

There are 122 articles specifically referring to this gene in PubMed. Functionally, the gene has been tested for association to diseases (Adenocarcinoma; Alcoholism; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity; Autistic Disorder; Bipolar Disorder; Brain Neoplasms; Breast Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Small Cell; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Chromosome Deletion and 17 others), proposed to participate in pathways (Non-small cell lung cancer, Pathways in cancer, Small cell lung cancer) and processes (signal transduction, embryonic eye morphogenesis, embryonic hindlimb morphogenesis, negative regulation of cell proliferation, negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter and 7 others). Proteins are expected to have molecular functions (DNA binding, protein binding, metal ion binding, retinoic acid receptor activity and 5 others) and to localize in various compartments (nucleus, membrane, cytoplasm). Putativeprotein interactors have been described (CEBPA, CEBPB, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, HDAC1, HIST4H4, MAP6, NCOA1, NCOA3, NCOR2 and 7 others). 

(From HuGENavigator)

  • Cardiovascular Diseases  
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2  
  • Edema  
  • Tobacco Use Disorder  
  • Drug Toxicity  
  • Gout  
  • Hypercholesterolemia  
  • Kuru  
  • Liver Cirrhosis  
  • Measles  
  • Meningomyelocele  
  • Mental Disorders  
  • Metabolic Syndrome X  
  • Myopia  
  • Neoplasms   
  • Neural Tube Defects  
  • Osteoporosis  
  • Schizophrenia  
  • Cleft Lip  
  • Cleft Palate  
  • Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome  
  • Diabetes Complications  
  • Alcoholism  
  • Alzheimer Disease  
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity  
  • Autistic Disorder  
  • Bipolar Disorder  

Assay Kits and Services are available from INDIGO Biosciences.

Kits are offered in different assay formats to accommodate researchers’ needs: 3x 32, 1x 96, and 1x 384 assay formats for screening small numbers of test compounds, as well as custom bulk reagents for HTS applications. Assay systems are all inclusive, providing reporter cells, optimized growth media, media for diluting test compounds, a positive-control agonist, luciferase detection reagent, a white assay plate, a detailed protocol, and a protocol quick guide. All kits are shipped on dry ice.

RARβ Reporter Cells are prepared using INDIGO’s proprietary CryoMite™ process. This cryo-preservation method yields high cell viability post-thaw, and provides the convenience of immediately dispensing healthy, division-competent reporter cells into assay plates. There is no need for intermediate spin-and-wash steps, viability determinations, or cell titer adjustments.

The principle application of this assay product is in the screening of test samples to quantify functional activities, either agonist or antagonist, that they may exert against the human retinoic acid receptor. This kit product is an all-inclusive assay system that includes, in addition to RARβ Reporter Cells, two optimized media for use during cell culture and (optionally) in diluting the test samples, a reference agonist, Luciferase Detection Reagent, a cell culture-ready assay plate, and a detailed protocol.


(From Aceview)

The gene contains 14 distinct gt-ag introns. Transcription produces 9 different mRNAs, 8 alternatively spliced variants and 1 unspliced form. There are 3 probable alternative promotors, 2 non overlapping alternative last exons and 4 validated alternative polyadenylation sites (see the diagram). The mRNAs appear to differ by truncation of the 3' end, presence or absence of 4 cassette exons, overlapping exons with different boundaries. Note that mRNA .fAug10 was found in vivo, although it is a predicted target of nonsense mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Efficacy of translation may be reduced by the presence of a shorter translated product (uORF) initiating at an AUG upstream of the main open reading frame



RXRA, RARA, Rxr, RARB, NCOR2, NCOR1, RARG, NCOA1, KAT2B, MED1 (includes EG:19014), tretinoin, Rar, NCOA3, NRIP1, NR2C1

(From KEGG)

  • 13-cis-retinoic acid
  • 9-cis-retinoic acid
  • acitretin
  • adapalene
  • etretinate
  • fenretinide
  • tazarotene
  • tretinoin

(From BioGPS)