Omega-3-PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are associated with prevention of various aspects of metabolic syndrome. In the present studies, the effects of oil rich in EPA on gene expression and activation of nuclear receptors was examined and compared with other  3-PUFAs. The EPA-rich oil (EO) altered the expression of FA metabolism genes in THP-1 cells, including stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) and FA desaturase-1 and -2 (FASDS1 and -2). Other  3-PUFAs resulted in a similar gene expression response for a subset of genes involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation. In reporter assays, EO activated human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and PPAR β/γ with minimal effects on PPARγ, liver X receptor, retinoid X receptor, farnesoid X receptor, and retinoid acid receptor γ (RARγ); these effects were similar to that observed for purified EPA. When serum from a 6 week clinical intervention with dietary supplements containing olive oil (control), DHA, or two levels of EPA were applied to THP-1 cells, the expression of SCD and FADS2 decreased in the cells treated with serum from the  3-PUFA-supplemented individuals. Taken together, these studies indicate regulation of gene expression by EO that is consistent with treating aspects of dyslipidemia and inflammation.

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Date of publication: 3 May 2012; JLR Papers in Press, American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

Author information: Peter J. Gillies (1); Sujata K. Bhatia (1); Leigh A. Belcher (2); Daniel B. Hannon (3); Jerry T. Thompson (3); & John P. Vanden Heuvel (3,4)

(1) Central Research and Development, DuPont Experimental Station, E328/140B, Wilmington, DE 19880
(2) DuPont Industrial Biosciences, Experimental Station E356, Wilmington, DE 19880
(3) Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences and Center for Molecular Toxicology and Carcinogenesis, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802
(4) INDIGO Biosciences, State College, PA 16801

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