Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARɣ; NR1C3)

This gene encodes a member of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) subfamily of nuclear receptors. PPARs form heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and these heterodimers regulate transcription of various genes. Three subtypes of PPARs are known: PPAR-alpha, PPAR-delta, and PPAR-gamma. The protein encoded by this gene is PPAR-gamma and is a regulator of adipocyte differentiation. Additionally, PPAR-gamma has been implicated in the pathology of numerous diseases including obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis and cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been described.

[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NRR Pathway


Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Structure

(From Structure)


(From Aceview)

There are 1082 articles specifically referring to this gene in PubMed. Functionally, the gene has been tested for association to diseases (Adenocarcinoma; Adenoma; Alcoholism; Alzheimer Disease; Anemia, Aplastic; Aortic Valve Stenosis; Arteriosclerosis; Arthritis, Rheumatoid; Asthma; Atrial fibrillation and 64 others), proposed to participate in pathways (Basic mechanism of action of PPARa PPARb(d) and PPARg and effects on gene expression, Huntington's disease, Pathways in cancer, PPAR signaling pathway, Role of PPAR-gamma Coactivators in Obesity and Thermogenesis, Thyroid cancer, Visceral Fat Deposits and the Metabolic Syndrome) andprocesses (brown fat cell differentiation, cell fate commitment, epithelial cell differentiation, long-chain fatty acid transport, negative regulation of acute inflammatory response and 18 others). Proteins are expected to have molecular functions (chromatin binding, DNA binding, metal ion binding, promoter binding and 6 others) and tolocalize in various compartments (cytoplasm, nucleus, cytosol). Putative protein interactors have been described (AMPD1ANDDENND2CANDBCAS2, BRD8, CEP350, CNOT1, COPS5ANDLRRC67, CREBBP, DNTTIP2, EDF1, EP300, FABP1 and 36 others). 

(From HuGENavigator)

  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2  
  • Obesity  
  • Insulin Resistance  
  • Metabolic Syndrome X  
  • Hypertension  
  • Diabetes Mellitus  
  • Cardiovascular Diseases  
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  
  • Inflammation  
  • Coronary Artery Disease  
  • Colorectal Neoplasms  
  • Birth Weight  
  • Weight Gain  
  • Weight Loss  
  • Body Weight  
  • Myocardial Infarction  
  • Coronary Disease  
  • Diabetic Nephropathies  
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1  
  • Obesity, Morbid  
  • Glucose Intolerance  
  • Lung Neoplasms  
  • Diabetes, Gestational  
  • Adenocarcinoma  
  • Breast Neoplasms  
  • Diabetes Complications  
  • Colonic Neoplasms  
  • Fatty Liver  
  • Disease Progression  
  • Osteoporosis  
  • Overweight  
  • Colitis, Ulcerative  
  • Crohn Disease  
  • Alzheimer Disease  
  • Rectal Neoplasms  
  • Prostatic Neoplasms  
  • Schizophrenia  
  • Stroke  
  • Cognition Disorders  
  • Diabetic Retinopathy  
  • Hyperinsulinism  
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic  
  • Hyperglycemia  
  • Glucose Metabolism Disorders  
  • Neoplasms  
  • Albuminuria  
  • Arteriosclerosis  
  • Atherosclerosis  
  • Dyslipidemias  
  • Edema  
  • Stomach Neoplasms  
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive  
  • Premature Birth  
  • Endometriosis  
  • Esophageal Neoplasms  
  • Diabetic Angiopathies  
  • Brain Ischemia  
  • Adenoma  
  • Asthma  
  • Carcinoma  
  • Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung  
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms  
  • Metabolic Diseases  
  • Helicobacter Infections  
  • Hypercholesterolemia  
  • HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome  
  • Hyperlipidemias  
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases  
  • Kidney Diseases  
  • Hypertriglyceridemia  
  • Hodgkin Disease  
  • Hyperandrogenism  
  • HIV Infections  
  • Hyperlipidemia, Familial Combined  
  • Neuropsychological Tests  
  • Osteoarthritis, Knee  
  • Peptic Ulcer  
  • Multiple Myeloma  
  • Lipid Metabolism, Inborn Errors  
  • Calcinosis  
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell  
  • Chorioamnionitis  
  • Chronic Disease  
  • Carotid Artery Diseases  
  • Cerebrovascular Accident  
  • Alcoholism  
  • Arthritis, Psoriatic  
  • Arthritis, Rheumatoid  
  • Dementia  
  • Coronary Restenosis  
  • Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture  
  • Endometrial Neoplasms  
  • Disease Susceptibility  
  • Pre-Eclampsia  
  • Recurrence  
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales  
  • Peripheral Vascular Diseases  
  • Puberty, Precocious  
  • Sleep Apnea, Obstructive  
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms  
  • Uterine Neoplasms  
  • Ventricular Dysfunction, Left  
  • Stress, Psychological  
  • Syndrome  
  • Thinness  
  • Thrombophilia  
  • Thrombosis  
  • Thyroid Neoplasms  
  • Tobacco Use Disorder  
  • Sleep Stages  
  • Spinal Fractures  
  • Starvation  
  • Radiation Injuries  
  • Radiation Pneumonitis  
  • Skin Diseases  
  • Skin Neoplasms  
  • Psychotic Disorders  
  • Puberty, Delayed  
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic  
  • Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal  
  • Sarcoidosis  
  • Satiation  
  • Prediabetic State  
  • Pregnancy Complications  
  • Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects  
  • Psoriasis  
  • Drug Toxicity  
  • Diabetic Neuropathies  
  • Dyspepsia  
  • Gallstones  
  • Gastritis  
  • Glomerulonephritis, IGA  
  • Esophagitis  
  • Femur Head Necrosis  
  • Coronary Stenosis  
  • Colonic Polyps  
  • Constriction, Pathologic  
  • Dental Plaque  
  • Biliary Tract Neoplasms  
  • Breast Diseases  
  • Bone Diseases, Metabolic  
  • Adenomatous Polyps  
  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  
  • Angina Pectoris, Variant  
  • Anorexia Nervosa  
  • Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal  
  • Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia  
  • Chest Pain  
  • Cellulitis  
  • Bulimia  
  • Carcinoma, Renal Cell  
  • Carcinoma, Basal Cell  
  • Lipodystrophy  
  • Lipodystrophy, Familial Partial  
  • Liver Cirrhosis  
  • Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic  
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic  
  • Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin  
  • Melanoma  
  • Memory Disorders  
  • Mental Disorders  
  • Mental Status Schedule  
  • Multiple Sclerosis  
  • Microsatellite Instability  
  • Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial  
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local  
  • Periodontitis  
  • Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal  
  • Osteoporotic Fractures  
  • Ovarian Failure, Premature  
  • Ovarian Neoplasms  
  • Osteonecrosis  
  • Obstetric Labor, Premature  
  • Orbital Diseases  
  • HIV Seropositivity  
  • Hepatitis C, Chronic  
  • Hepatitis, Toxic  
  • Hip Fractures  
  • Hirsutism  
  • Graves Disease  
  • Graves Ophthalmopathy  
  • Growth Disorders  
  • Hearing Loss  
  • Hypertrophy  
  • Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular  
  • Infertility, Female  
  • Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced  
  • Kidney Neoplasms  
  • Leiomyoma  
  • Lipid Metabolism Disorders  

Assay Kits and Services are available from INDIGO Biosciences.

Kits are offered in different assay formats to accommodate researchers’ needs: 3x 32, 1x 96, and 1x 384 assay formats for screening small numbers of test compounds, as well as custom bulk reagents for HTS applications. Assay systems are all inclusive, providing reporter cells, optimized growth media, media for diluting test compounds, a positive-control agonist, luciferase detection reagent, a white assay plate, a detailed protocol, and a protocol quick guide. All kits are shipped on dry ice.

PPARɣ Reporter Cells are prepared using INDIGO’s proprietary CryoMite™ process. This cryo-preservation method yields high cell viability post-thaw, and provides the convenience of immediately dispensing healthy, division-competent reporter cells into assay plates. There is no need for intermediate spin-and-wash steps, viability determinations, or cell titer adjustments.

The principle application of this assay product is in the screening of test samples to quantify functional activities, either agonist or antagonist, that they may exert against the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor. This kit product is an all-inclusive assay system that includes, in addition to PPARɣ Reporter Cells, two optimized media for use during cell culture and (optionally) in diluting the test samples, a reference agonist, Luciferase Detection Reagent, a cell culture-ready assay plate, and a detailed protocol.


(From Aceview)

The gene contains 17 distinct gt-ag introns. Transcription produces 12 different mRNAs, 11 alternatively spliced variants and 1 unspliced form. There are 5 probable alternative promotors, 2 non overlapping alternative last exons and 8 validated alternative polyadenylation sites (see thediagram). The mRNAs appear to differ by truncation of the 5' end, truncation of the 3' end, presence or absence of 3 cassette exons, overlapping exons with different boundaries. 10 spliced mRNAs putatively encode good proteins, altogether 9 different isoforms (5 complete, 2 COOH complete, 2 partial), some containing domains Ligand-binding domain of nuclear hormone receptor, Zinc finger, C4 type (two domains) [Pfam]. The remaining 2 mRNA variants (1 spliced, 1 unspliced; 1 partial) appear not to encode good proteins. Finally proteins from this gene may be modulated by phosphorylation; sumoylation, as detailed at PhosphoSite. 



RXRA, rosiglitazone, MED1 (includes EG:19014), NCOA1, Rxr, PPARGC1A, NCOR1, FABP4, EP300, Acox, NCOR2, CREBBP, 15-deoxy-delta-12,14 -PGJ 2, RELA, CEBPB (includes EG:1051)

(From KEGG)

  • GI262570
  • glimepiride/rosiglitazone
  • pioglitazone
  • pioglitazone/metformin
  • rosiglitazone
  • rosiglitazone-metformin combination
  • tesaglitazar
  • troglitazone

(From BioGPS)