Retinoic Acid Receptor Gamma (RARɣ; NR1B3)

This gene encodes a retinoic acid receptor that belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. Retinoic acid receptors (RARs) act as ligand-dependent transcriptional regulators. When bound to ligands, RARs activate transcription by binding as heterodimers to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) found in the promoter regions of the target genes. In their unbound form, RARs repress transcription of their target genes. RARs are involved in various biological processes, including limb bud development, skeletal growth, and matrix homeostasis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.

[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

NRR Pathway

RAR gene expression

Retinoic Acid Receptor Gamma Structure


(From Structure)


(From Aceview)

There are 54 articles specifically referring to this gene in PubMed. Functionally, the gene has been tested for association to diseases (Alcoholism; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity; Autistic Disorder; Bipolar Disorder; Breast Neoplasms; Drug Toxicity; Edema; Genetic Predisposition to Disease; Mental Disorders; Schizophrenia) and proposed to participate in processes (anterior/posterior pattern formation, bone morphogenesis, embryonic eye morphogenesis, embryonic hindlimb morphogenesis, epithelium development and 10 others). Proteins are expected to have molecular functions (DNA binding, metal ion binding, retinoic acid receptor activity, retinoid X receptor binding and 4 others) and to localize in various compartments (mitochondrion, nucleus, transcription factor complex). Putative protein interactors have been described (DMWDANDDMPK, HMGA1, ITGB1BP2, JUBANDHAUS4, MAP6, NCOA1, NCOA3, NCOR1, NCOR2, NR0B2 and 8 others). 

(From HuGENavigator)

  • Cardiovascular Diseases
  • Edema
  • Hypercholesterolemia  
  • Liver Cirrhosis  
  • Measles  
  • Meningomyelocele  
  • Mental Disorders  
  • Metabolic Syndrome X  
  • Neoplasms  
  • Neural Tube Defects  
  • Osteoporosis  
  • Schizophrenia  
  • Cleft Lip  
  • Cleft Palate  
  • Diabetes Complications  
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2  
  • Drug Toxicity  
  • Alcoholism  
  • Alzheimer Disease  
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity  
  • Autistic Disorder  
  • Bipolar Disorder  

Assay Kits and Services are available from INDIGO Biosciences.

Kits are offered in different assay formats to accommodate researchers’ needs: 3x 32, 1x 96, and 1x 384 assay formats for screening small numbers of test compounds, as well as custom bulk reagents for HTS applications. Assay systems are all inclusive, providing reporter cells, optimized growth media, media for diluting test compounds, a positive-control agonist, luciferase detection reagent, a white assay plate, a detailed protocol, and a protocol quick guide. All kits are shipped on dry ice.

RARɣ Reporter Cells are prepared using INDIGO’s proprietary CryoMite™ process. This cryo-preservation method yields high cell viability post-thaw, and provides the convenience of immediately dispensing healthy, division-competent reporter cells into assay plates. There is no need for intermediate spin-and-wash steps, viability determinations, or cell titer adjustments.

The principle application of this assay product is in the screening of test samples to quantify functional activities, either agonist or antagonist, that they may exert against the human retinoic acid receptor. This kit product is an all-inclusive assay system that includes, in addition to RARɣ Reporter Cells, two optimized media for use during cell culture and (optionally) in diluting the test samples, a reference agonist, Luciferase Detection Reagent, a cell culture-ready assay plate, and a detailed protocol.


(From Aceview)

The gene contains 26 distinct gt-ag introns. Transcription produces 21 different mRNAs, 20 alternatively spliced variants and 1 unspliced form. There are 4 probable alternative promotors, 5 non overlapping alternative last exons and 4 validated alternative polyadenylation sites (see the diagram). The mRNAs appear to differ by truncation of the 5' end, truncation of the 3' end, presence or absence of 12 cassette exons, overlapping exons with different boundaries, splicing versus retention of 3 introns. 5 variants were isolated in vivo, despite the fact that they are predicted targets of nonsense mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Efficacy of translation may be reduced by the presence of a shorter translated product (uORF) initiating at an AUG upstream of the main open reading frame.



Rxr, NCOR1, NCOR2, RXRA, RARB, tretinoin, MED1 (includes EG:19014), NCOA1, KAT2B, NCOA3, EP300, PNRC1, PSMC5, NRIP1, 9-cis-retinoic acid

(From KEGG)

  • 13-cis-retinoic acid
  • 9-cis-retinoic acid
  • acitretin
  • adapalene
  • etretinate
  • fenretinide
  • tazarotene
  • tretinoin

(From BioGPS)